Chapter 1

  1. Center for Disease Control. (2022). Leading causes of death. FastStats.
  2. Devries, S., Willett, W., & Bonow, R. O. (2019). Nutrition education in medical school, residency training, and practice. JAMA, 321(14), 1351–1352.
  3. Center for Disease Control. (2021). Dietary supplement use among adults: United States, 2017–2018. National Center for Health Statistics.
  4. National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2022). NCAA banned substances.
  5. Center for Disease Control. (2021). Exercise or physical activity.
  6. Tremblay, M. S., Aubert, S., Barnes, J. D., Saunders, T. J., Carson, V., Latimer-Cheung, A. E., Chastin, S. F., Altenburg, T. M., & Chinapaw, M. J. (2017). Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN) – Terminology consensus project process and outcome. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 75.

Chapter 2

  1. US Food and Drug Administration. (2005, April). Dietary supplement labeling guide: Chapter I. General dietary supplement labeling.

Chapter 3

  1. Shim, J. S., Oh, K., & Kim, H. C. (2014). Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies. Epidemiology and Health, 36, e2014009.
  2. Miller, S., Milliron, B. J., & Woolf, K. (2013). Common prediction equations overestimate measured resting metabolic rate in young hispanic women. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 28(2), 120–135.

Chapter 4

  1. Lopez-Legarrea, P., Fuller, N. R., Zulet, M. A., Martinez, J. A., & Caterson, I. D. (2014). The influence of mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 23(3), 360–368.
  2. Barton, W., Penney, N. C., Cronin, O., Garcia-Perez, I., Molloy, M. G., Holmes, E., Shanahan, F., Cotter, P. D., & O’Sullivan, O. (2018). The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level. Gut, 67, 625-633.
  3. Kulecka, M., Fraczek, B., Mikula, M., Zeber-Lubecka, N., Karczmarski, J., Paziewska, A., Ambrozkiewicz, F., Jagusztyn-Krynicka, K., Cieszczyk, P., & Ostrowski, J. (2020). The composition and richness of the gut microbiota differentiate the top Polish endurance athletes from sedentary controls. Gut Microbes, 11(5), 1374–1384.
  4. Lee, M. C., Hsu, Y. J., Ho, H. H., Hsieh, S. H., Kuo, Y. W., Sung, H. C., & Huang, C. C. (2020). Lactobacillus salivarius subspecies salicinius SA-03 is a new probiotic capable of enhancing exercise performance and decreasing fatigue. Microorganisms, 8(4), 545.
  5. Okamoto, T., Morino, K., Ugi, S., Nakagawa, F., Lemecha, M., Ida, S., Ohashi, N., Sato, D., Fujita, Y., & Maegawa, H. (2019). Microbiome potentiates endurance exercise through intestinal acetate production. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 316(5), E956–E966.

Chapter 5

  1. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition. December 2020. Available at
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, November 28). Get the facts: Added sugars.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, June 21). Rethink your drink.
  4. US Food and Drug Administration. (2018, February 8). Additional information about high-intensity sweeteners permitted for use in food in the United States.
  5. National Cancer Institute. (2020, September 25). Cancer statistics.
  6. Farvid, M. S., Spence, N. D., Holmes, M. D., & Barnett, J. B. (2020). Fiber consumption and breast cancer incidence: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of prospective studies. Cancer, 126(13), 3061–3075.
  7. Murray, B., & Rosenbloom, C. (2018). Fundamentals of glycogen metabolism for coaches and athletes. Nutrition Reviews, 76(4), 243–259.
  8. Richter, E. A., Sylow, L., & Hargreaves, M. (2021). Interactions between insulin and exercise. Biochemical Journal, 478(21), 3827–3846.
  9. Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501–528.
  10. Jeukendrup, A. (2007). Carbohydrate supplementation during exercise: Does it help? How much is too much? (No. 106). Gatorate Sports Science Instutite.
  11. Jentjens, R., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2003). Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery. Sports Medicine, 33(2), 117–144.
  12. Kerksick, C. M., Arent, S., Schoenfeld, B. J., Stout, J. R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C. D., Taylor, L., Kalman, D., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Kreider, R. B., Willoughby, D., Arciero, P. J., VanDusseldorp, T. A., Ormsbee, M. J., Wildman, R., Greenwood, M., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Aragon, A. A., & Antonio, J. (2017). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 33.
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, December 17). Diabetes quick facts.
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, January 18). National diabetes statistics report.
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, March 2). Diabetes symptoms.
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, April 5). Diabetes risk factors.
  17. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (2002). Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(6), 393–403.

Chapter 6

  1. Tsao, C. W., Aday, A. W., Almarzooq, Z. I., Alonso, A., Beaton, A. Z., Bittencourt, M. S., Boehme, A. K., Buxton, A. E., Carson, A. P., Commodore-Mensah, Y., Elkind, M. S., Evenson, K. R., Eze-Nliam, C., Ferguson, J. F., Generoso, G., Ho, J. E., Kalani, R., Khan, S. S., Kissela, B. M., . . . Martin, S. S. (2022). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2022 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 145(8), e153–e639.
  2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2021, December 29). DASH eating plan.

Chapter 7

  1. Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501–528.
  2. Jäger, R., Kerksick, C. M., Campbell, B. I., Cribb, P. J., Wells, S. D., Skwiat, T. M., Purpura, M., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Ferrando, A. A., Arent, S. M., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Stout, J. R., Arciero, P. J., Ormsbee, M. J., Taylor, L. W., Wilborn, C. D., Kalman, D. S., Kreider, R. B., Willoughby, D. S., . . . Antonio, J. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 20.
  3. Phillips, S. M., Chevalier, S., & Leidy, H. J. (2016). Protein “requirements” beyond the RDA: Implications for optimizing health. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(5), 565–572.
  4. Antonio, J., Ellerbroek, A., Silver, T., Vargas, L., Tamayo, A., Buehn, R., & Peacock, C. A. (2016). A high protein diet has no harmful effects: A one-year crossover study in resistance-trained males. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2016, 9104792.

Chapter 8

  1. Kreider, R. B., Kalman, D. S., Antonio, J., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Wildman, R., Collins, R., Candow, D. G., Kleiner, S. M., Almada, A. L., & Lopez, H. L. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1).
  2. Kaviani, M., Shaw, K., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2020). Benefits of creatine supplementation for vegetarians compared to omnivorous athletes: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3041.
  3. Kerksick, C. M., Wilborn, C. D., Roberts, M. D., Smith-Ryan, A., Kleiner, S. M., Jäger, R., Collins, R., Cooke, M., Davis, J. N., Galvan, E., Greenwood, M., Lowery, L. M., Wildman, R., Antonio, J., & Kreider, R. B. (2018). ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1).
  4. Kreider, R. B., & Stout, J. R. (2021). Creatine in health and disease. Nutrients, 13(2), 447.
  5. Smith-Ryan, A. E., Cabre, H. E., Eckerson, J. M., & Candow, D. G. (2021). Creatine supplementation in women’s health: A lifespan perspective. Nutrients, 13(3), 877.
  6. Balestrino, M. (2021). Role of creatine in the heart: Health and disease. Nutrients, 13(4), 1215.
  7. McMahon, S., & Jenkins, D. (2002). Factors affecting the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense exercise. Sports Medicine, 32(12), 761–784.

Chapter 9

  1. Frederick, D. A., Sandhu, G., Morse, P. J., & Swami, V. (2016). Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. national sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Body Image, 17, 191–203.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, July 20). Adult obesity facts.
  3. World Health Organization. (2021, June 9). Obesity and overweight.
  4. Stockwell, S., Trott, M., Tully, M., Shin, J., Barnett, Y., Butler, L., McDermott, D., Schuch, F., & Smith, L. (2021). Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: A systematic review. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 7(1), e000960.
  5. Lee, C. D., Blair, S. N., & Jackson, A. S. (1999). Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(3), 373–380.
  6. Farrell, S. W., Braun, L., Barlow, C. E., Cheng, Y. J., & Blair, S. N. (2002). The relation of body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and all-cause mortality in women. Obesity Research, 10(6), 417–423.
  7. Blair, S. N., & Church, T. S. (2004). The fitness, obesity, and health equation. JAMA, 292(10), 1232.
  8. National Institutes of Health. (2022). Key recommendations.


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Nutrition and Physical Fitness Copyright © 2022 by Angela Harter Alger is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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